The number of Internet users grows day by day. In 2015, it exceeded 3.2 billion. In the case of such a large number of users, cybercrime is an ideal place for criminals. Cybercrunchers can remain anonymous and acquire personal information that we consciously or accidentally leave online.
During this analysis, we will discuss what is the cybercrime, what are its types and how to become a victim of cybercrime.
What is Cybercrime?
“Cybercrime” is a crime against computers or other devices i, or where the offense is committed by a computer or other device ii. The most common types iii of cybercrime are computer piracy, online fraud, attacks on computer systems, identity theft, illegal distribution of prohibited information. Cyber-attackers are often not required to master great skills because they can easily buy online tools that enable open entries and overcome password protection. Unfortunately, technological advancement has not helped to detect and punish offenders easily. The cyber-cruncher realizes its activities anonymously, which complicates its position by law enforcement agencies iv. Today, cybercrime has turned into a business that has an annual income of $ 3 trillion v. The global experience shows that many countries do not have the appropriate settings and financial capacities to combat cybercrime, so it is not surprising that cybercrime is more common in developing countries.
According to official statistics vi, cybercrime in Armenia is not widespread, even though numbers are growing year after year. The investigation of criminal cases against computer security crimes is carried out by the RA Police, investigating and preliminary investigation units. According to the data provided by the Department, in 2013, 130 cases of NSS were investigated under the supervision of cybercrime cases. During the same period, 39 criminal proceedings were suspended. 31 cases against 38 persons were sent to court vii.
At present, cybercriminals in Armenia are targeted at individuals, e-commerce providers and banks. Cybercrime crimes against individuals are most frequently carried out by Azeris. For them, the victim’s personality is secondary, and the fact of being Armenian is the first.
From the point of view of business, e-commerce agents and banks are targeted.
As regards the level of protection of our state websites, state sites are sufficiently protected, but the problem is not the protection of the site, but the information. The latter needs educated staff, which is controversial for Armenia viii.
In 2001, Armenia signed the Convention on Cybercrime, but it does not serve as a basis for moving the Armenian-Azeri cyber-warfare into a legal dimension, as neither Armenia nor Azerbaijan will take any measures to detect cyber-criminals crushing the enemy’s websites.
Types of Cybercrime:
It is impossible to specify the types of cybercrime in an exhaustive list. Therefore, we think that it is more appropriate to adopt the approach in the classification of the types of computer crime and to discuss the most widespread types.
The criminological literature is differentiated ix:
- economic computer crimes,
- Computer crimes against human and civil rights and freedoms,
- computer crime against public and state security.
The most common type of economic crime is computer crime. They bring criminals millions of dollars in illegal profits. The most common is computer fraud. It’s mostly done through bank accounts and bank cards.
In international practice, crimes committed by bank plastic cards are manifested with lost or stolen cards, with or without the use of fake payment cards, without the use of card-based card account information and crimes committed by the card holder.
The next common type is the so-called “phishing” fraud. So, you are a “phishing” victimx, if you have received an email with the following content: “I’m 80-year-old wealthy in Uganda, looking for a” smart ” and a “stunning” young man to test my $ 500,000. Send me your bank account, passport information, and I will send it to you xi or “You have lost your bank payment card information, please re-enter your bank card data for card recovery “.
With such messages, the perpetrator begins to panic with psychological pressure, the use of emotional impulses or the fear of losing money. The latter, in his turn, tries to lose time and, without being sure of the authenticity of the message addressed to him, without any doubt, gives the cybercrime all the confidential information about his / her bank account. As a result, the perpetrator begins to dispose of your personal money.
Another type of computer crime is crimes against human and civil rights and freedoms, among them “computer piracy” xii: This offense is manifested by the use of illegal copying, use, and dissemination of computer software. It seriously harms the legal relationships (copyright and related legal relations) related to the creation of software and databases, legal protection. Additionally, it is causing large financial losses to software manufacturing companies.
Director of Microsoft Armenia Grigor Barseghyan noted that the losses caused by computer piracy make producers 66 billion dollars annually. According to him, Armenian consumers are sparing their financial resources and are going to buy affordable software, having a high risk of infection with viruses xiii. We believe that the problem is due to the fact that the programs are not available xiv to consumers. The consumer, seeing the free version of the program, acquires it. The latter is computer crimes against public or state security. These include publicly dangerous acts against state or public security and are often associated with violations of information transfer rules, disruption of the country’s defense system or its components, and so on.
Thus, the separation of species into cybercrime allows them to be examined depending on their characteristics and aims to increase the effectiveness of the fight against them.
How not to Become a Victim of Vyber-smuggling?
At present, cybercrime is so widespread that 14 adults suffer every second, and the total number of victims is 431 million. The fight against this crime should be the size of each of the security measures. The simplest way is to learn how to protect yourself online and not to be a victim of cyberattacking. Despite online purchases and online banking, many of us have become part of daily life.
- You should always check the reliability of the given site,
- It is necessary to avoid paying by means of credit cards through public computers,
- It is mandatory to ensure that the websites are trusted and legally binding before making online purchases or applying bank data for any purpose,
- You need to constantly update computer software programs,
- You have to choose strong passwords and stay away from strangers’ suspicious emails from “special offers” not to share your personal information with unknown millionaires who are going to give you their property, suspicious contest organizers and fake banks.
By safeguarding the following rules of safety, we will not abstain from deception, we will not lose our monetary means and will reduce the number of victims of these crimes xv. A sharp increase in the recorded cases is observed in the summary report of the cases recorded in the first four months of 2014 by the Division for Combating Crimes in the High Tech Department of the RA Police. In the above mentioned period, 5 cases of embezzlement through computer equipment (Criminal Code, article 181), computer sabotage 4 (art. 253), 11 articles (Article 254) on illegal possession of computer information, propagation materials or articles 4 (Article 263 ) case xvi.
i“Население” Интернета оценили в 3.2 милиларда человек , http://hitech.vesti.ru/article/625286/, 11.10.2017
ii For example, computer piracy
iii For example, online frauds, personal data theft.
iv Learn about cybercrime, https://www.acorn.gov.au/learn-about-cybercrime ,05.11.2017
v Report of the 13th United Nations Conference on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, Doha, April 12-15, 2015
vi In the same place
vii Summary report on cases recorded by the High-Tech Crimes Division of the Main Department of the Police of the Republic of Armenia (within four months of 2014);www.police.am
viii In the traces of cybercrime , http://www.jnews.am/cybercrime-in-Armenia%20
ix I got the information from my interview with Samvel Martirosyan
xА.И Долговой, Криминология, М.2005, с. 739
xi English word “fishing” which means “catch”. The word’s “f” has been replaced by “ph” and from the time known in the world as “phising”
xiiPhising, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ovwoBOeiX2w , 17.10.2017
xiiiН.А. Селиванов, Проблемы борьбы с компьютерной преступностью. М. 1998, с.8
xiv Fight against piracy is a global problem. Experts urge to buy only licensed programs, 16.10.2017, http://archive.ankakh.com/?p=300502
- “Население” Интернета оценили в 3.2 милиларда человек , http://hitech.vesti.ru/article/625286/
- Հանցավորության կանխարգելման և քրեական արդարադատության ՄԱԿ-ի 13-րդ կոնգրեսի հաշվետվություն, Դոհա, ապրիլի 12-15 2015թ.:
- Կիբերհանցագործության հետքերով, http://www.jnews.am/cybercrime-in-Armenia%20
- am, Ամփոփ հաշվետվություն` ՀՀ ոստիկանության ԿՀԴՊ գլխավոր վարչության բարձր տեխնոլոգիաների ոլորտում կատարվող հանցագործությունների դեմ պայքարի բաժնի կողմից արձանագրված դեպքերի վերաբերյալ (2014 թ. չորս ամիսների ընթացքում)
- Н.А. Селиванов Проблемы борьбы с компьютерной преступностью. М. 1998
- Learn about cybercrime,http://archive.ankakh.com/?p=300502շ
- «Դատական իշխանություն» ամս., Հ. Պալյան «համակարգչային հանցավորության տեսակները» 4-5/93-94, 2007, ապրիլ-մայիս, էջ 76
Author: Nare Smbatyan) © All rights reserved.
Translator: Anoush Gevorgyan