The mankind has created various ideologies[ii] through history which in turn have shaped regimes, religions, governing systems and so on. The ideologies have had different and even contradictory notions and directions.
Moreover, the ideological factor along with the resource allocation and reallocation has played a significant role in the vast majority of historical conflicts (Crusades, World War 2, etc.). Any intangible anthropogenic fact, be it patriotism, freedom or happiness, is somehow defined through ideologies. Yet, along with all differences they have one thing in common. This is the likeness of their stories. All ideologies have their own stages of history, i.e. the origin, maturity, expansion, rise, popularization, extremism, decadence and decline. Moreover, it can develop in various forms and stages in different societies. The thing is that nowadays the human-centered (humanistic) ideology has reached extreme levels especially in the societies bearing Western civilization. The man as an individual, his passions and desires are considered as criteria and objectives of everything.
Liberal-democratic systems and values that play their unique progressive historical roles, have now become catalysts of the clashes of interests between the society and the individual. Here lies one of the roots of all the problems mentioned above. If a system is to serve the individual, be able to meet all his needs, desires and whims, then it is doomed to standstill, especially if it has become extreme. The improvement of the quality of life of the individual as an objective, as a public dream, brings about welfare only at the materialistic level, but it also gradually weakens the module of the human will. The size of the latter is inversely proportional to the satisfaction of the individual, since satisfaction, as a rule, is a result of achieving goals and aspirations. And as we already know, the intellectual imperative, i.e. the intended, rational thought that seeks to achieve the goal, is observed in the definition of the will. The presence or availability of reality automatically brings about the decline of the module of will. Large masses of the society identify satisfaction with materialistic security. The rest becomes remote and impossible to be perceived. In case of the democratic principle, i.e. the majority rule, they are viewed as a group that has less voting quote (excluding, of course, ways of manipulation).
It is for this internal problem that I am free to affirm that the present developed liberal-democratic societies are doomed to standstill, because the ideologies have become extreme. For they provide the materialistic welfare of the majority of the society, they also weaken the module of will of that very majority. In democratic societies the power belongs to the majority and we find out that the authority is formed by the majority with distorted and weak will. This cannot remain without any consequences.
However, there is another point: as long as the system’s primary task is to meet the needs and desires of the individual, science and art are also confined to that problem. And if in case of art it is expressed by the perception crisis (for the reasons discussed here and earlier), in case of science we have something different.
The unprecedented scientific progress and achievements in the last 3-4 decades are undeniable. Yet, they have become victims of extreme individual-centrism and are again mainly directed to meet the needs of the individual (and more often this direction is not made naturally). There would be a progress if science was reconstructed to serve the mankind as a biological integrity, not the individual. Finally, the contrary of the expansion of the living aerial of any biological species is its regression and possibility of further destruction. And we, as a biological species, have ceased to expand our living aerial long ago. Progress is a must for the mankind as a biological integrity, we are the only rational species known to us and we are the ones to complete the mission of expanding rational life (presently, life in general) in space.
Here also we can find the key to our discussed problem about how to overcome the weakening of the module of will. The investigation of space is connected with the progress, endless progress of not only science and technology, but also the progress of the man as a living organism a rational creature. And the endless desire for progress is itself an endless struggle, and this promotes the module of will in its turn. I consider it appropriate to cite Nietzsche’s words, “Don’t seek for peace, but seek your enemy, conduct your own war, the war for the sake of your thoughts…”.
The best and the most creative sphere of the human nature is struggle. And now a system has been established that deliberately drowns that sphere and leads us to the desire for worldwide peace and compromise. There should be no war between people, the war should be against the endless world surrounding us in order to conquer it, to colonize and inhabit it, for the sake of our biological progress. This kind of war is a must. The development of our way of life and satisfaction of our petty, personal needs should not become the goal of the vast majority of the human activity. In order to adapt the new reality and new achievements the man should stop thinking as an individual and begin to think as a part of the biological integrity, as a species. Personal happiness should not be the goal of everything, it should be the product and result of all those goals. The personal goal of each one of us is our own business, but the overall systemic goal should not be the happiness of individuals, but the progress of the whole system.
This analysis consisting of 3 parts was an attempt to define the basic deep problem of the world surrounding us (well, at least in the Western part of it) and my views on how to solve it. The basis of the problem certainly lies in the will. Art and other directions and concepts were brought as examples to indicate how serious and worldwide the problem is. I would like to add that I have got neither a final and complete understanding of the problem, nor a detailed recipe for its solution for now, and that is natural. Now there is only the image of the problem, some notions about it and a vision of the possible solution. The rest can serve as material for a future much more extensive work.
[i] Lat. – exit point, the chance to quit the situation.
[ii] A system of ideas and views that reflects the attitude of different social groups and classes towards the reality and expresses their fundamental interests, intentions and demands.
- Фридрих Ницше, Так Говорил Заратустра, Минск, Харвест, 2005
- Новая философская энциклопедия,http://iph.ras.ru/enc.htm
- Основные направления и течения философии с их представителями http://studme.org/1667011917702/filosofiya/osnovnye_napravleniya_techeniya_filosofii_predstavitelyami
- Encyclopedia Britannica,http://www.britannica.com/
Author: Areg Kochinyan: © All rights are reserved.
Translator: Yeranuhi Antonyan